Die Garantenstellung bei den Unterlassungsdelikten

Beispiel 1: Die ledige Mutter Emma Piel erstickt ihr vier Wochen altes Kind mit dem Kopfkissen, um es loszuwerden. Emma tut etwas ihr Verbotenes, was zum Tode des Kindes führt.

Beispiel 2: Die ledige Mutter Ottilie Huber lässt ihr vier Wochen altes Kind verhungern, um es gleichermaßen loszuwerden. Ottilie unterlässt etwas ihr Gebotenes, was ebenfalls zum Tode des Kindes führt.

Das Strafrecht stellt zum Schutz der Rechtsgüter in der Regel Verbote auf und gibt in den Tatbeständen des besonderen Teils des StGB eine Beschreibung derjenigen Handlungen, die Verbotsnormen aufstellen.

  • A ersticht B. A handelt der Verbotsnorm zuwider „Du sollst nicht töten“, vgl. § 212 StGB.

  • A entnimmt der Kasse heimlich 1.000 Euro. A handelt der Verbotsnorm zuwider „Du sollst nicht stehlen“, vgl. § 242 StGB.

  • A vergewaltigt die 17-jährige Ottilie hinter dem Bahndamm. A handelt der Verbotsnorm zuwider „Du sollst keinen Beischlaf erzwingen“, vgl. § 177 StGB.

In allen drei Fällen führt der Verstoß gegen ein Verbot zu einer möglichen Bestrafung, indem die Täter den jeweiligen gesetzlichen Tatbestand durch ein positives Tun verwirklichen. Man nennt diese Delikte Begehungsdelikte (Kommissivdelikte).

Das Strafrecht stellt aber in wenigen Ausnahmefällen auch Gebote auf, gebietet also ein aktives Tun und nimmt daher die Nichtbefolgung des Gebotes, also ein Unterlassen, unmittelbar in den Tatbestand auf.

  • Vor den Augen des Nachbarn B kommt S mit ihrem Fahrrad zu Fall und bleibt bewusstlos auf der Fahrbahn liegen. B geht ungerührt seines Weges, weil er die „freche Göre“ noch nie leiden konnte.

B handelt der Gebotsnorm zuwider „Du sollst bei Unglücksfällen Hilfe leisten“, vgl. § 323c StGB.

  • Vater B erfährt glaubhaft davon, dass sein Sohn S seine ehemalige Freundin F aus Eifersucht töten will, weil S die neu liierte F keinem anderen gönnt. B unternimmt nichts, weil er schon immer gegen die nicht „standesgemäße“ Beziehung war.

B handelt der Gebotsnorm zuwider „Du sollst geplante Verbrechen anzeigen“, vgl. § 138 Abs. 1 StGB. (Der zwischen Vater und Sohn bestehende Interessenkonflikt wird gem. § 139 Abs. 3 StGB zuungunsten des Vaters entschieden.)

  • Partygast B, der wieder einmal einen über den Durst getrunken hat und nach fremden Frauen „grapscht“, bleibt trotz mehrfacher Aufforderung des Hausrechtsträgers, sich zu entfernen, locker in seinem Sessel sitzen.

B handelt der Gebotsnorm zuwider „Du sollst dich aus dem Haus entfernen, wenn der Hausrechtsträger dich dazu auffordert“, vgl. § 123 Abs. 1 2. Alt. StGB.

In diesen drei Fällen führt der Verstoß gegen ein Gebot zu einer möglichen Bestrafung, indem die Täter den jeweiligen gesetzlichen Tatbestand durch ein Unterlassen verwirklichen. Man nennt diese Delikte echte Unterlassungsdelikte (Omissivdelikte); echte deshalb, weil es Deliktstatbestände sind, in denen der Gesetzgeber selbst Gebote zugrunde legt, und die daher unmittelbar als tatbestandliche (Nicht-)Handlung ein Unterlassen enthalten.

  • In den ersten „drei Fällen des A“ gebietet also das Gesetz ein Nichttun und bestraft das Tun.

  • In den zweiten „drei Fällen des B“ gebietet das Gesetz ein Tun und bestraft das Nichttun.

Ein Verstoß gegen eine Verbotsnorm ist nun aber nicht nur durch positives Tun denkbar, sondern auch durch Unterlassen. In den beiden Eingangsfällen handelt Ottilie Huber, die ihr Kind verhungern lässt, sicherlich der Verbotsnorm „Du sollst nicht töten“ (§ 212 StGB) ebenso zuwider wie Emma Piel, die ihren Säugling erstickt.

Vater Jupp Schmitz, der seinen 3-jährigen Sohn in den Rhein stößt, damit er ertrinkt, handelt ebenso der Verbotsnorm des § 212 StGB (Totschlag) zuwider wie derjenige Vater, der teilnahmslos zusieht, wie sein von selbst in den Rhein gefallener Sohn ertrinkt.

Bei derartigen Unterlassungsdelikten spricht man von unechten Unterlassungsdelikten; unechte deshalb, weil hier im Gegensatz zu den echten Unterlassungsdelikten ja nicht ein Gebot, sondern ein Verbot übertreten wird.

Beispiel: Vater Jupp Schmitz geht mit seinem 5-jährigen Sohn Max an den nahe gelegenen Fühlinger See zum Schwimmen. Er beobachtet, wie Max plötzlich wegsackt. Obwohl Jupp erkennt, dass Max sofort Hilfe braucht, unternimmt er absichtlich nichts. Max ertrinkt.

Jupp könnte sich dadurch, dass er Max nicht zu Hilfe gekommen ist, nicht nur wegen § 323 c StGB, sondern wegen Totschlags gem. § 212 StGB strafbar gemacht haben.

Das setzt voraus, dass er einen Menschen getötet hat. Durch aktives Tun hat Jupp Max nicht getötet; er könnte aber einen Totschlag, begangen durch Unterlassen gem. §§ 212, 13 StGB, verwirklicht haben.

Unechte Unterlassungsdelikte beruhen gesetzestechnisch auf einer Analogie zu den Begehungsdelikten. Diese Analogie zuungunsten des Täters ist ausnahmsweise zulässig, weil das Gesetz sie selbst regelt.

Sie wird nach § 13 StGB im Wesentlichen über die sogenannte Garantenklausel hergestellt. Nach § 13 Abs. 1 StGB ist derjenige, der es unterlässt, einen Erfolg abzuwenden, der zum Tatbestand eines Strafgesetzes gehört, nur dann strafbar, „wenn er rechtlich dafür einzustehen hat, dass der Erfolg nicht eintritt“. Die Lücke der Begehungsdelikte – § 211 StGB kann man z.B. nur durch aktives Töten verwirklichen – wird im Hinblick auf das Unterlassen der Ottilie Huber über diese rechtliche Einstandspflicht geschlossen.

Rechtlich dafür einzustehen, dass der Erfolg – d.h. die Verwirklichung des Tatbestandes – nicht eintritt, hat der sog. Garant. Die Garanteneigenschaft ist also Voraussetzung dafür, dass der Tatbestand eines unechten Unterlassungsdeliktes erfüllt werden kann, d.h., dass der Unterlassende aufgrund einer besonderen Schutzpflicht (Garantenstellung) zur Erfolgsabwendung verpflichtet ist.

Wann ist man aber ein Garant? Wann hat man eine solche besondere Schutzpflicht? § 13 StGB sagt dazu nichts, setzt die Antwort auf diese Frage vielmehr voraus.

Garant ist man, wenn man eine Rechtspflicht zum Handeln hat („rechtlich“ dafür einzustehen).

Damit grenzt der Gesetzgeber zunächst einmal die bloße moralische, soziale, ethische oder religiöse Pflicht aus der Garanteneigenschaft aus. Weiter muss es sich um eine besondere Rechtspflicht handeln, die gerade nur dem Täter persönlich obliegt. Pflichten, die jedermann treffen (z.B. die allgemeine Hilfspflicht nach § 323c StGB), begründen keine Garantenstellung.

Woraus ergibt sich eine solche Rechtspflicht?

Sie ergibt sich aus überlieferten besonderen Umständen, die als ungeschriebene Tatbestandsmerkmale der unechten Unterlassungsdelikte anzusehen sind. Herkömmlicherweise werden in der ständigen Rechtsprechung von alters her vier Gruppen unterschieden, aus denen eine Garantenstellung begründet werden kann (Garantenquartett).

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Garantenstellung aus Rechtsvorschrift

Die drei wichtigsten Rechtsvorschriften, aus welchen sich eine Garantenstellung für das Rechtsgut ergeben kann, sind familienrechtlicher Natur.

  • Gemäß §§ 1626 Abs. 1, 1631 Abs. 1 BGB haben Eltern u.a. die Pflicht, für die Person ihrer minderjährigen Kinder zu sorgen und diese zu beaufsichtigen.

Diese Sorgepflicht erstreckt sich insbesondere auf das Leben und die Gesundheit ihrer Kinder.

Beispiel: Wenn die Rabenmutter Ottilie Huber ihren Säugling verhungern lässt, so ist das Delikt der §§ 212, 13 StGB in Form des unechten Unterlassungsdeliktes zu prüfen. Die Garantenstellung der Mutter ergibt sich aus dem Gesetz: §§ 1626 Abs. 1, 1631 Abs. 1 BGB.

  • Gemäß § 1353 Abs. 1 S. 2 BGB sind Ehegatten zur ehelichen Lebensgemeinschaft verpflichtet. Daraus folgt auch die Rechtspflicht zum gegenseitigen Beistand.

Beispiel: Wenn der Ehemann bei Heimwerkerarbeiten mit der Hand in die Kreissäge gerät, so hat sich die dies beobachtende Ehefrau wegen Totschlags gem. §§ 212, 13 StGB, begangen durch Unterlassen, zu verantworten, wenn sie ihn nicht vor dem Tod durch Verbluten bewahrt, also den Tötungserfolg nicht abwendet. Ihre Garantenstellung ergibt sich aus § 1353 Abs. 1 S. 2 BGB.

  • Gemäß § 1618a BGB sind Kinder auch gegenüber ihren Eltern zum Beistand verpflichtet. Auch aus § 1618a BGB fließt nach neuerer Auffassung eine Garantenstellung, nachdem man dieser Vorschrift zunächst nur einen reinen Appellationscharakter beigemessen hatte.

Beispiel: Wenn der aus dem elterlichen Haus geworfene Sohn S mit Hilfe eines noch in seinem Besitz befindlichen Zweitschlüssels die Wohnung seiner Eltern betritt, um noch einige Sachen abzuholen und dabei den von einem Stromschlag getroffenen Vater schwer verletzt am Boden liegen sieht, ihm aber aus Rache für das ihm vermeintlich angetane Unrecht nicht hilft, so hat sich S wegen §§ 212, 13 StGB zu verantworten. Seine Garantenstellung folgt aus der Rechtsvorschrift des § 1618a BGB.

Da im Ausgangsfall Vater Jupp Schmitz als Garant für das Leben seines Kindes gem. §§ 1626 Abs. 1, 1631 Abs. 1 BGB anzusehen ist, ist er wegen Totschlags, begangen durch Unterlassen, strafbar.

Garantenstellung aus „Vertrag“

Eine sehr bedeutsame Rolle spielt in der Praxis die Garantenstellung aus Vertrag, wobei der eingebürgerte Begriff „Vertrag“ besser durch „tatsächliche Pflichtenübernahme“ ersetzt würde, da es nicht auf die zivilrechtliche Wirksamkeit des Vertrages ankommt, sondern auf die faktische Übernahme der Pflicht.

Grundlage der Garantenstellung aus tatsächlicher Pflichtenübernahme ist das Vertrauen, das demjenigen entgegengebracht wird, der ein Rechtsgut tatsächlich in seine Obhut nimmt.

Beispiel: Das Kindermädchen Maxi ist angestellt worden und soll am 1.10. seine Stellung antreten. Es kommt aber erst am 3.10. Am 2.10. spielt das Kind, auf das Maxi aufpassen sollte, mit einem Nagel und erhält beim Versuch, mit dem Nagel in die Steckdose zu gelangen, einen tödlichen Stromschlag.

Da eine vorsätzliche Herbeiführung des Erfolges offensichtlich ausscheidet, kommt eine Bestrafung wegen fahrlässiger Tötung, begangen durch Unterlassen, gem. §§ 222, 13 StGB in Betracht. Eine Garantenstellung kann sich für Maxi aus Vertrag (§ 611 BGB – Dienstvertrag) ergeben. Allein auf den Vertragsschluss kann es aber nicht ankommen; der bloße Vertragsbruch ist strafrechtlich irrelevant. Entscheidend ist, dass die vertraglichen Pflichten tatsächlich (faktisch) aufgenommen worden sind. Da durch den Vertragsschluss allein eine Schutzfunktion für das Leben und die Gesundheit des Kindes noch nicht begründet wurde und Maxi die tatsächliche Obhut noch nicht ausgeübt hatte, hat sie auch noch keine Garantenstellung übernommen. Sie kann daher auch nicht wegen fahrlässiger Tötung, begangen durch Unterlassen, bestraft werden.

Umgekehrt: Hätte dagegen Maxi, die als 16-Jährige ohne Einwilligung ihrer Eltern den Vertrag geschlossen hatte, ihre Pflichten tatsächlich am 1.10. aufgenommen und wäre nunmehr das zu beaufsichtigende Kind am 2.10. tödlich verunglückt, so wäre sie wegen fahrlässiger Tötung, begangen durch Unterlassen (als Jugendliche gem. § 1 Abs. 2 JGG) zu bestrafen, da sie die tatsächliche Obhut ausgeübt hatte. Auf die zivilrechtliche Wirksamkeit des Vertrages kommt es nicht an. (Zur zivilrechtlichen Lage vgl. §§ 108 Abs. 1, 107, 106, 2 BGB in „Juristische Entdeckungen – Bd. II“)

Beispiele für die Garantenstellung aus tatsächlicher Pflichtenübernahme bieten die Übernahme einer ärztlichen Behandlung, die Führung des Professors auf den Gipfel durch den Bergführer, die Beaufsichtigung im Schwimmbad durch den Bademeister oder Schwimmlehrer, die Verwaltung des Vermögens durch den Vermögensverwalter oder der Schutz der zu bewachenden Objekte durch die Sicherheitsdienste oder den Nachtwächter.

Dabei müssen noch die zeitlichen und gegenständlichen Grenzen der Pflichtenübernahme beachtet werden.

  • Ein Arzt, der die Behandlung abgeschlossen hat, ist jedenfalls unter dem Aspekt der Pflichtenübernahme kein Garant mehr für die Gesundheit seines ehemaligen Patienten.
  • Ein Bademeister, der sieht, wie Badegast A Badegast B bestiehlt, ist kein Garant für das Eigentum des B, sondern nur für dessen Leben und Gesundheit beim Schwimmen.
  • Ein Bergführer, der sieht, wie ein Mitglied seiner Gruppe verbotenerweise ein 

Edelweiß pflückt, ist kein Garant für den Naturschutz.

Garantenstellung aus vorausgegangenem rechtswidrigem Tun

Eine Garantenstellung kann sich weiterhin aus Gefahr begründendem Vorverhalten (sog. Ingerenz) ergeben.

Grundlage für diese Garantenpflicht ist das alte Verbot, andere zu verletzen (lat.: neminem laede). Wer durch sein objektiv pflichtwidriges Verhalten eine nahe Gefahr für fremde Rechtsgüter herbeiführt, ist verpflichtet, den Eintritt des Erfolges abzuwenden; er ist ihr Garant.

Beispiel: Öltankwagenfahrer F erkennt auf einer befahrenen Landstraße durch seinen Rückspiegel, dass er Öl verliert, weil sich die Ölablassschraube gelockert hat. Als er sofort anhält, stellt er fest, dass eine ca. 100 m lange Ölspur entstanden ist. Ohne irgendwelche Warnvorrichtungen anzubringen oder das Öl zu beseitigen, setzt er sich in den Straßengraben und denkt: „Der nächste Motorradfahrer, der hier bremst, ist hin.“ Der Motorradfahrer Jupp stürzt auf der Ölspur zu Tode.

F wird wegen Totschlages, begangen durch Unterlassen, gem. §§ 212, 13 StGB angeklagt werden. Wäre F weitergefahren in dem Vertrauen, es werde schon nichts passieren, müsste er sich wegen fahrlässiger Tötung, begangen durch Unterlassen, gem. §§ 222, 13 StGB verantworten.

Seine Garantenstellung ergibt sich einmal aus einer Rechtsvorschrift, nämlich aus § 32 Abs. 1 S. 1, 2 StVO; zum anderen aber entscheidend aus einem Gefahr begründenden Vorverhalten (Ingerenz). F hat durch das Verschmutzen der Landstraße eine objektiv pflichtwidrige Handlung begangen, die eine nahe Gefahr für den Todessturz des Motorradfahrers herbeigeführt hat.

Um eine Ausuferung dieser Garantenhaftung zu vermeiden, sind hier freilich zwei Einschränkungen erforderlich.

  • Es genügt nicht irgendein Vorverhalten! Gefordert wird vielmehr ein objektiv pflichtwidriges Vorverhalten.
  • Es genügt nicht die Herbeiführung irgendeiner Gefahr! Gefordert wird vielmehr die Herbeiführung einer nahen Gefahr.

Beispiel: In der kölschen Kneipe „Bei Alex“ schenkt der Wirt allabendlich Kölsch und Korn an seine Stammgäste aus, unter denen auch zahlreiche Autofahrer sind. Jupp Schmitz, einer der allabendlichen Gäste, verursacht auf der Heimfahrt mit seinem Pkw einen tödlichen Verkehrsunfall.

Durch das Ausschenken von Alkohol wird der Wirt nicht zum Garanten i.S. des § 13 StGB, da zwar eine nahe Gefahr, aber kein objektiv pflichtwidriges Verhalten vorliegt; anders aber dann, wenn der Gast schon so betrunken ist, dass er nicht mehr verantwortlich handeln kann, da das Ausschenken an betrunkene Gäste untersagt und mithin rechtswidrig ist.

Beispiel: Otto Meier befährt seelenruhig und vollkommen verkehrsgerecht die Autobahn von Soest nach Paderborn, als er von einem Geisterfahrer (G) gerammt wird. Mit dem Bemerken „Dem Idioten geschieht es gerade recht“ lässt er den schwer verletzten G auf der Autobahn liegen und fährt mit seinem noch fahrbereiten Pkw nach Hause. G stirbt.

Otto Meier ist mangels Pflichtwidrigkeit nicht Garant gegenüber dem allein verkehrswidrig handelnden Unfallopfer. Er ist nur nach § 323c StGB allgemein hilfspflichtig.

Beispiel: Auf dem Nachhauseweg wird Franz Müller gegen 2.00 Uhr nachts von dem Räuber R mit einem Messer angegriffen. Er wehrt sich, indem er dem R in seiner Angst einen am Straßenrand liegenden Stein mit voller Wucht auf den Kopf schlägt. Franz Müller lässt den schwer verletzten R auf der einsamen Landstraße liegen, wo dieser verblutet. Franz Müller hätte R retten können, wenn er ihn verbunden oder zumindest im nächsten Ort die Polizei von dem Vorfall verständigt hätte. Ihm war aber der Tod des Räubers gleichgültig.

1. Zunächst ist zu prüfen, ob sich Franz Müller durch sein positives Tun, nämlich durch das aktive Schlagen mit dem Stein, wegen Totschlages gem. § 212 StGB strafbar gemacht hat. Er hat einen Menschen getötet, ohne Mörder zu sein, mithin den Tatbestand des § 212 erfüllt.

Die Rechtswidrigkeit seines Tuns ist jedoch ausgeschlossen, da er in Notwehr gem. § 32 Abs. 1, Abs. 2 StGB gehandelt hat. (Prüfen Sie die Voraussetzungen der Notwehr bitte genau durch!)

2. Angeknüpft werden kann aber weiterhin an das Unterlassen von Rettungsmaßnahmen gegenüber dem durch Notwehr verletzten R. Fraglich ist allein, ob sich aus dem vorangegangenen gefährdenden Tun eine Garantenstellung des Franz Müller für das Leben des verletzten Räubers R ergibt und er mithin gem. §§ 212, 13 StGB strafbar sein könnte.

Nach BGHSt 23, 327 (lesenswerter Klassiker!) hat der durch Notwehr Gerechtfertigte keine Garantenstellung für das Leben des bei der Notwehrhandlung verletzten Angreifers, da für die Garantenstellung aus vorausgegangenem gefährdendem Tun eben ein pflichtwidriges Vorverhalten erforderlich ist.

Franz Müller ist danach weder wegen Totschlages durch positives Tun noch wegen Totschlages, begangen durch Unterlassen, sondern allein wegen unterlassener Hilfeleistung gem. § 323c StGB zu bestrafen (denn „zumutbar“ ist eine Rettungsmaßnahme).

Garantenstellung aus konkreter Lebensbeziehung

Beispiel: Der 30-jährige ewige Student Oskar ist mitsamt seiner Ehefrau Ottilie von seinem reichen Bruder wegen fortgesetzter Gammelei aus der gemeinsamen Wohnung gewiesen worden. Drei Tage später kommen beide gemeinsam in die Wohnung des Bruders zurück, um noch einige Sachen aus ihrem Zimmer abzuholen. Sie schließen die Wohnungstür mit einem noch in ihrem Besitz befindlichen Schlüssel auf und sehen den Bruder bewusstlos auf dem Boden liegen. Die neben ihm stehende Leiter und die offenen Drähte aus der Decke sagen ihnen sofort, dass der Bruder bei der Montage einer Deckenbeleuchtung einen elektrischen Schlag erhalten hat und von der Leiter gestürzt ist. Obwohl sie erkennen, dass der Bruder bzw. Schwager sofortiger Hilfe bedarf, lassen sie aus Verbitterung über das ihnen vom Bruder angetane vermeintliche Unrecht dem Schicksal seinen Lauf und entfernen sich. Der Bruder verstirbt an den Folgen des Stromschlages; eine Rettung wäre sicher erfolgt, wenn Oskar und Ottilie einen Arzt gerufen hätten.

Eine Garantenstellung von Oskar und Ottilie gegenüber dem Bruder bzw. Schwager ergibt sich hier weder aus Vertrag, noch aus vorangegangenem gefährdendem Tun. Eine Schutzpflicht zur Abwendung drohender Gefahren lässt sich im Verhältnis der Geschwister untereinander oder im Verhältnis von Schwager und Schwägerin auch nicht aus dem bürgerlichen Gesetz herleiten. (Es bestehen noch nicht einmal gegenseitige Unterhaltspflichten!)

Es ist jedoch anerkannt, dass nach dem Grundgedanken der Rechtsordnung eine Garantenstellung auch aus einer konkreter Lebensbeziehung resultieren kann. Entweder man ist dem Träger des Rechtsgutes auf natürliche Weise, z.B. durch Verwandtschaft, verbunden (natürliche Verbundenheit) oder man steht ihm sonst sehr nahe (enge Gemeinschaftsbeziehung).

  • Grundlage der Garantenpflicht aus natürlicher Verbundenheit ist die gegenseitige Obhutspflicht von „Verwandten“, wobei nicht jede Familienbeziehung eine solche Garantenstellung begründet. Nur Verwandte gerader Linie, Geschwister oder Verlobte sind einander unter diesem Aspekt Obhutsgaranten. Bei Verschwägerten ist die Rechtslage nicht einheitlich. Während der Bundesgerichtshof eine Schutzpflicht des Schwiegersohns gegenüber der Schwiegermutter bejaht, wird ein solches Ergebnis in der Literatur vorwiegend als zu weitgehend abgelehnt.
  • Grundlage der Garantenpflicht aus enger Gemeinschaftsbeziehung ist die Tatsache, dass die gegenseitige Hilfspflicht zum konstitutiven Wesen solcher Gemeinschaften gehört. Eine Einschränkung ergibt sich aus dem Wort „eng“. Lose Beziehungen begründen diese Hilfspflichten nicht. Der Inhalt der Hilfspflicht ist aus der Art der Gemeinschaft herzuleiten. Hier sind Gefahrengemeinschaften wie Seilschaften oder Expeditionen, eheähnliche Lebensgemeinschaften und Pflegeverhältnisse zu nennen. Nicht eng genug sind die Beziehungen in wirtschaftlichen Wohn- oder Betriebsgemeinschaften, Sportvereinen und Zufallsgefahrengemeinschaften (Zechgelage, Schiffsbrüchige).

Da es bei der engsten und natürlichsten Gemeinschaft, nämlich der durch Blutsbande verbundenen Familie, nicht auf das Vorhandensein einer effektiven Familiengemeinschaft ankommt, war Oskar trotz des zwischen ihm und seinem Bruder bestehenden Streites und auch nach Aufhebung der häuslichen Gemeinschaft Garant für das Leben seines Bruders.

Oskar hat somit den Tatbestand des Totschlages, begangen durch Unterlassen, gem. §§ 212, 13 StGB rechtswidrig und schuldhaft erfüllt. Seine Garantenstellung resultierte aus einer konkreten Lebensbeziehung.

Bei Ottilie kommt es nunmehr darauf an, ob Sie sie als Schwägerin in den Kreis der Garanten, begründet durch konkrete Lebensbeziehung, einbeziehen. Bejahen Sie diese Frage, so ist auch Ottilie wegen Totschlages, begangen durch Unterlassen, strafbar. Verneinen Sie eine natürliche Verbundenheit zwischen Verschwägerten, müssen Sie eine unterlassene Hilfeleistung gem. § 323c StGB als echtes Unterlassungsdelikt untersuchen.

Bei Oskar tritt § 323 c StGB hinter §§ 212, 13 StGB zurück. Das echte Unterlassungsdelikt des § 323c StGB ist gegenüber einem in der Unterlassung liegenden unechten Unterlassungsdelikt subsidiär, wenn dieses unechte Unterlassungsdelikt auf den Erfolg gerichtet war, der sich aus dem Unglücksfall zu entwickeln drohte. Die sich aus der Garantenstellung ergebende weitergehende Pflicht, den Erfolg zu verhindern, schließt das auf bloße Hilfeleistung gerichtete Gebot des § 323c StGB notwendig ein.

In der Lehre wird hingegen im Unterschied zum „Garantenquartett“ der Rechtsprechung einGarantenduett“ vertreten.

Entweder es wird eine besondere Beziehung zu dem Opfer (sog. „Beschüt-zergarant“) gefordert,

oder es wird eine besondere Beziehung zu einer von dem Unterlassenden zu überwachende Gefahrenquelle (sog. „Überwachungsgarant“) gefordert.

Die Unterschiede sind von geringer Bedeutung – wie so oft bei einem Theorienstreit.

Garantenstellung

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179 Gedanken zu „Die Garantenstellung bei den Unterlassungsdelikten“

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