Was sind Definitionen und wozu sind sie gut?

Wir müssen aber zunächst mal, bevor wir weiterreden, die Begriffe definieren.“ – Diskussion tot? – In der normalen Diskussion, nein! In der juristischen Diskussion, nein! Definitionen sind unumgänglich, um Eindeutigkeit herbeizuführen. Bei ihnen geht es darum, Wortdeutungen genauer festzulegen, genauer anzugeben, Worte in den genaueren Ausdruck zu stellen. Doch es geht bei den Juristen um mehr:

Denn Definitionen sind nicht nur genaue Feststellungen, sondern zugleich Verabredungen. Es wird zwischen und für Juristen vereinbart, dass eine ganz bestimmte Bedeutung von nun an in einem bestimmten Gesetzeskontext gelten soll. Diese „Verabredung“ trifft in Zivil- und Strafsachen meist der Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), in grundgesetzlichen Fragen des BVerfG, wobei dieses Wort „Verabredung“ definitionsbedürftig ist.

Vater zur Tochter: „Du bist schon wieder zu spät! Wir hatten 24.00 Uhr verabredet. Mir scheint, Du hast Probleme mit Verabredungen.“ Tochter zum Vater: „Nein, mit Verabredungen nicht, aber mit Anordnungen.“

Also! Der BGH und das BVerfG „ordnen“ „Vereinbarungen“ in Form von Definitionen an, legen Inhalte fest und glauben sich hierbei mit allen Juristen einig. Sie schaffen aus Mehrdeutigkeit Eindeutigkeit.

Man braucht Definitionen, weil man die genaue Bekanntschaft mit den ungenauen tatbe-standlichen, gesetzlichen Begriffen erst durch die Definitionen macht. Weil jede Auslegung eines Tatbestandsmerkmals früher oder später in eine solche Definition mündet. Eine Definition (lat.: definitio, Begriffsbestimmung) ist eine Worterläuterung, eine inhaltliche, begriffliche Abgrenzung (lat.: finis, Grenze). Solches „Abgrenzen“ und „Bestimmen“ sind in der Juristerei äußerst nützlich. Die Beherrschung solcher Definitionen ist kein Ballast, das Abverlangen ihres genauen Wortlauts keine Schikane, sondern ausschließlich eine Erleichterung für den Subsumtionsprozess. Ihre Definition ist Ihre Angabe über das, was Sie an Inhalt und Umfang in einem juristischen Begriff gedacht haben. Definitionen sind in der Juristerei Gold wert, um sich möglichst genau und differenziert auszudrücken und die Subsumtion auf eine sichere Grundlage zu stellen. Auf den Nichtjuristen wirken sie allerdings oft pedantisch, umwegig und umständlich.

Juristische Definitionen funktionieren dabei nicht ohne erhebliche Verknappungen. Ausschmückungen, Nuancen, Vergleiche, Bilder gehen dabei verloren, was aber durch den Gewinn an Klarheit wieder wettgemacht wird. Seit altersher ist das Definieren eine der Hauptaufgaben der Obergerichte. Diese juristischen Definitionen treten anders als die philosophischen gar nicht mit dem Anspruch an, die fein verästelte Bedeutung eines Wortes bis ins Tiefste auszuloten. Vielmehr möchten sie sich nur zu dem Zweck einer bestimmten Gesetzesmerkmalinterpretation auf eine bestimmte Gesetzesmerkmalbedeutung mit der Rechtsgemeinschaft einigen. Dabei gesteht man durchaus ein, dass durch die juristische Festlegung eines Tatbestandsmerkmals die Bedeutung eines lebenden Wortes für die Alltagssprache und für alle Lebensvariationen nicht ausgeschöpft werden kann. Alle Arten von juristischen Definitionen sind letztendlich nichts weiter als juristisch-sprachliche Ab-

kommen über Inhalt und Verwendung eines Tatbestandsmerkmals. Es sind Übereinkünfte, getroffen von der Rechtsgemeinschaft, vertreten durch die Rechtsprechung, selten auch durch die Literatur und ganz selten von dem Gesetzgeber selbst. Würde jeder Richter oder Gesetzesanwender definieren, wie er will, würde die Vergleichbarkeit fehlen. Die Einheitlichkeit der Rechtsanwendung und damit die Gleichheit vor dem Gesetz und damit letztlich die Gerechtigkeit würden auf der Strecke bleiben.

In der Logik unterscheidet man herkömmlich zwei Arten von Definitionen:

  • Zum einen die sog. Nominaldefinitionen. Darunter versteht man die „Taufe“ von Begriffen, also die Benennung mit einem bestimmten Namen, wie z.B. „Sache“, „fremd“, „Mann“, „Frau“, „Gesetz“, „wegnehmen“.
  • Zum anderen die sog. Realdefinitionen. Darunter fasst man die Bestimmung des Wesens, der Eigenart eines Gegenstandes, eines Adjektivs oder eines Verbs, das, was nur ihm eigen ist, was es prägt, wie z.B. „Sache ist ein …“, „fremd ist eine Sache, die …“, „Mann ist ein …“, „Frau ist eine …“, „Gesetz ist ein …“, „Wegnehmen ist …“.
  • In der Juristerei kommt noch eine dritte Art von Definition hinzu: Eine vom Gesetzgeber selbst vorgenommene Begriffsbestimmung, die wir mit einer Nominaldefinition Legaldefinition taufen. Vorweg ist immer zu überlegen, ob der Gesetzgeber uns die Arbeit der Interpretation nicht durch eine Legaldefinition abgenommen hat, also durch eine Definition im Gesetz selbst, wie z.B. in § 90 BGB (Sachen), § 121 BGB (unverzüglich), § 122 BGB (kennen müssen), § 276 Abs. 2 BGB (Fahrlässigkeit), § 166 Abs. 2 (Vollmacht), § 854 (Besitz), § 903 BGB (Eigentum) oder in § 11 StGB. Findet man keine solche Legaldefinition, muss man selbst ran und den gesetzlichen Begriff definieren.

Für uns sind die Realdefinitionen von überragender Bedeutung. Wie kann man nun Realdefinitionen konstruieren? – Dafür gibt es wieder einmal eine Methode! Was auch sonst, wir sind schließlich in der Juristerei. Für Begriffe – und Tatbestandsmerkmale sind immer Begriffe – ist wesentlich, dass sie eine unterschiedliche Abstraktionshöhe haben und dass abstraktere Begriffe weniger abstrakte, also konkretere, umfassen. Es entstehen Begriffspyramiden. Die untersten Begriffe dieser Pyramide sind in ihrer Angabe so konkret, dass sie nicht mehr unterteilt werden können, und deren Spitze bildet die Angabe eines so abstrakten Begriffs, dass er keinen abstrakteren mehr über sich zulässt.

Beispiel: Nehmen wir an, Sie wollen die geschaute „Kirsche“ in Nachbars Garten definieren. Sie müssen nunmehr hierzu eine Begriffspyramide (Begriffsbaum) entwickeln.

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Entscheidend ist für Sie zu erkennen, dass unsere Sprache es uns ermöglicht, durch Steigerung des Abstraktionsgrades unterschiedlich viele Gegenstände zu bezeichnen. Je höher man im Begriffsbaum klettert, desto mehr Gegenstände kann man überblicken. So wie der Lichtkegel einer Hängelampe, die man höher und höher zieht, immer mehr Gegenstände anstrahlt. Dabei verlieren die Begriffe allerdings an substanziellem Inhalt und gewinnen dafür an subsumtionsfähiger Ausdehnung. So umfasst der Begriff „Substanz“ viel mehr Gegenstände als der Begriff „Steinobst“.

Da die Definition in Worten mitgeteilt wird, Worte aber ihrerseits immer Begriffe bezeichnen, bestehen jene definitorischen Angaben auch nur in Hinweisen auf andere Begriffe, die – das ist ein Problem – bekannt sein müssen. Da also das, was in einem Begriff gedacht wird, ausgedrückt wird durch einen weiteren Begriff, der jenen Begriff umfasst (siehe Baumdiagramm), fängt jede Definition damit an, dass sie eine weitere Sphäre angibt, in welcher der zu definierende Begriff liegt. Sie gibt den „Genus“, die Gattung, an, aber immer nur den nächsten „Genus“, weil die Definition ihrem Gegenstand so nah wie möglich kommen muss. Ist der zu definierende Gegen-stand z.B. ein juristischer Begriff wie „Vertrag“, so gibt sie als „Genus“ „mehrseitiges Rechtsgeschäft“ an. Also versetzt die Definition den Begriff „Vertrag“ zunächst in diese nächsthöhere Sphäre in der Begriffspyramide. Sodann weist die Definition dem Begriff „Vertrag“ seinen eigenen Ort in dieser Sphäre zu, indem sie angibt, was nur ihm alleine zukommt unter den zu diesem „Genus“, dieser „Gattung“, gehörigen Begriffen. Die Definition gibt dem zu definierenden Gegenstand also eine ganz spezifische Unterscheidung, klassisch: die „differentia specifica“. Diese wäre konkret „übereinstimmende Willenserklärung“. Also: Das Haupterfordernis jeder Definition ist „genus et differentia specifica“, auf deutsch: „Gattung und artbildender Unterschied“.

Jetzt erst gibt die Definition den Ort des Begriffs unter den anderen Begriffen genau an.

Die Fähigkeit, auf Verlangen von jedem Begriff eine Definition zu geben, erfordert weniger Scharfsinn als Übung. Erst durch diese erlangt man allmählich die Fertigkeit, von einem zu suchenden Begriff den zunächst weiteren zu finden, dessen Sphäre den zu definierenden umschließt (Genus), und sodann das Merkmal aufzuspüren, welches ihn innerhalb dieser Sphäre von allen anderen speziell unterscheidet (differentia specifica).

Im antiken Griechenland hatte man in der Wissenschaftstheorie diese „Begriffsbäume“ entwickelt, um mit ihrer Hilfe zu tiefen Erkenntnissen über das Wesen der Dinge zu kommen. Die Römer stahlen die Methode und machten etwas Praktisches daraus. Sie nutzten die Methode der Griechen für ihre Rechtssysteme und Gesetze.

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Eine Definition wird also durch Angabe eines nächsthöheren Begriffs (Oberbegriffs) und durch Hinzusetzen eines spezifischen Artmerkmals gebildet (sog. Genus-differentia-Methode). Die durch die Begriffsbäume entstehenden Beziehungen sind die Grundlage für die Begriffsbildung durch Definitionen. Man sieht, dass „Substanz“ als allgemeinster Gattungsbegriff fungiert, der keine Bestimmung mehr über sich zulässt. Von dort klettert man am Begriffsbaum zu immer konkreteren Gattungen herab, die durch Angaben des spezifischen Artmerkmals jeweils in Arten aufgeteilt werden bis zu einem Begriff, der keinen konkreteren unter sich mehr zulässt.

Kehren wir zu unserer „Beispielskirsche“ zurück.

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Jetzt ist es ein Leichtes, aus der Begriffspyramide den höheren Gattungsbegriff mit dem artbildenden Unterschied zu kombinieren und schon hat man die Definition: „Eine Kirsche ist ein kleines rotes Steinobst.“ Wichtig ist, immer nach dem nächsthöheren Gattungsbegriff zu suchen. Ein „Obstbaum“ ist also nicht etwa eine „stämmige Substanz“ (könnte auch ein Mann sein), sondern ein „Obstbaum“ ist eine „stämmige Fruchtpflanze“.

Diese Methode, aus den Begriffen unserer Sprache hierarchische Systeme zu bilden, aus denen man die Definitionen herauspflücken kann, ist bis heute unbestritten.

Wechseln wir in die Juristenwelt hinüber. Wir wollen die Begriffe „Verpflichtungsgeschäft“ und „Verfügungsgeschäft“ definieren, wie z.B. den Kauf (§ 433 BGB) und die Übereignung (§ 929 BGB) einer Sache. Ein dafür in Betracht kommender „Begriffsbaum“ könnte wie folgt gewachsen sein:

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  • Gewonnene Definition 1: Also ist ein „Vertrag“ (neuer Gattungsbegriff) ein mehrseitiges, aufgrund übereinstimmender Willenserklärungen (abgrenzendes Artmerkmal) zustande gekommenes Rechtsgeschäft (nächst-höhere Gattung). Verwendung eines Begriffs der nächsthöheren Gattung: Rechtsgeschäft. Abgrenzendes Artmerkmal: mehrseitiges Rechtsgeschäft aufgrund übereinstimmender Willenserklärungen.
  • Gewonnene Definition 2: Also ist ein „Verpflichtungsgeschäft“ (neuer Gattungsbegriff) ein zu einem Tun oder Unterlassen verpflichtender (abgrenzendes Artmerkmal) Vertrag (nächsthöhere Gattung), z.B. § 433 BGB.
  • Gewonnene Definition 3: Also ist ein „Verfügungsgeschäft“ (neuer Gattungsbegriff) ein eine Rechtsänderung unmittelbar begründender (abgrenzendes Artmerkmal) Vertrag (nächsthöhere Gattung), z.B. § 929 BGB.

Zur eigenen Definitionsgewinnung kann man externe Speicher zu Rate ziehen wie Lexika, Duden, etymologische Wörterbücher, Internet (Wikipedia). Zur direkten Übernahme juristischer Definitionen dienen die juristischen Kommentare, in welche die Rechtsprechung ihre ausgefeilten Definitionen ablegt.

Definieren ist eine schwierige juristische Kunst – und es ist leicht, dabei Fehler zu machen. – Hier einige Stolpersteine:

  • Eine Definition soll begrenzen. Dabei ist es naheliegend zu testen, ob sie auch leistet, was sie verspricht. Darauf kann man die Probe machen, indem man etwas heraussucht, das eigentlich darunter fallen müsste, und zeigt, dass es nicht darunter fällt. Dann ist die Definition zu eng. „Fremd ist eine Sache, die nicht im Eigentum des Täters steht.“ Die Definition ist zu eng, da „herrenlose“ Sachen auch nicht im Eigentum des Täters stehen und dennoch kein taugliches Diebstahlsobjekt sein können. Oder die Definition ist zu weit: „Fremd ist eine Sache, die in jemandes Eigentum steht“. Die Definition ist unbrauchbar, da eine im Eigentum des Täters stehende Sache eben nicht „fremd“ ist.
  • Eine Definition muss verknappen. „Fremd ist eine Sache, die nicht im Eigentum des Täters steht und nicht herrenlos ist“, ist zwar richtig, aber zu breit. „Fremd ist eine Sache, die im Eigentum eines Dritten steht“, sagt dasselbe und ist knapper, da sie den Fall der „Herrenlosigkeit“ ausschließt.
  • Definitionen, die nur mitteilen, was etwas nicht ist, verfehlen ihr Ziel. „Beweglich sind alle Sachen, die nicht Grundstücke sind“. Diese Art von Definition klärt nicht auf, sondern verschleiert nur, dass sie nicht erklären kann, was beweglich heißt. „Fremd ist eine Sache, die nicht herrenlos ist.“ Doppelt unsinnig!
  • Vermeiden Sie zirkelhafte Definitionen. Zirkelhaft ist eine Definition, wenn das, was definiert werden soll (Definiendum), in dem definierenden Wort (Definiens) wieder auftaucht, offen oder versteckt. „Beweglich ist eine Sache, wenn sie bewegt werden kann.“ „Beweglich ist eine Sache, wenn sie transportabel ist.“ (Transportabel ist nur ein Fremdwort für „beweglich“.) „Die Note mangelhaft‘ ist eine mit Mängeln behaftete Leistung“.
  • Die Definition darf nicht mit emphatischen Bezeichnungen, Beispielen oder Bildern umgangen werden. Legendär ist die Geschichte jenes Schülers, der eine Abiturklausur zum Thema „Was ist Mut?“ anzufertigen hatte und nach fünf Minuten dem Aufsichtsführenden ein fast leeres Blatt abgab, auf dem unten der Satz stand: „Das ist Mut.“ Das ist keine Definition, sondern der Versuch, eine Definition mit einem Beispiel zu umschiffen.
  • Eine Definition gibt das Versprechen ab: „Diese Definition X bedeutet ab jetzt immer X für das Merkmal Y“. Sie, der Sie eine Definition einführen, verpflichten sich, Ihre Definition auch tatsächlich konsequent zu beachten. Eine Definition feierlich zu zelebrieren, um sie gleich mit Füßen zu treten, ist ein schwerer Fehler.
  • Eine Definition muss Mehrdeutigkeit in Eindeutigkeit umwandeln. Bleibt trotz der Definition eine Mehrdeutigkeit übrig, ist die Definition juristisch untauglich. „Eine Sache ist ein Gegenstand“. Unbrauchbar, da unter „Gegenstand“ auch Forderungen und Rechte subsumierbar sind.

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